Flap Surgery - Veterinary Online Courses
Lesson 1, Topic 1
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Flap Surgery

Brett December 12, 2019

Flap Surgery


Flap (F): A sheet of tissue partially or totally detached to gain access to structures underneath or to be used in repairing defects; can be classified based on the location of the donor site (local or distant), attachment to donor site (pedicle, island or free), tissue to be transferred (e.g., mucosal, mucoperiosteal, cutaneous, myocutaneous), tissue thickness (partial-thickness or full-thickness), blood supply (random pattern or axial pattern), and direction and orientation of transfer (envelope, advancement, rotation, transposition, and hinged).

Location of Donor Site:

Local flap: Harvested from an adjacent site

Distant flap: Harvested from a remote site

Attachment to Donor Site:

Pedicle flap: Attached by tissue through which it receives its blood supply

Island flap (F/IS): Attached by a pedicle made up of only the nutrient vessels.

Free flap: Completely detached from the body; it has also been suggested that a free flap be termed a graft

Tissue to be Transferred:

Mucosal flap: Containing mucosa

Mucoperiosteal flap: Containing mucosa and underlying periosteum

Cutaneous (or skin) flap: Containing epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue

Myocutaneous flap: Containing skin and muscle

Gingival flap: Containing gingiva

Alveolar mucosa flap: Containing alveolar mucosa

Periodontal flap: Containing gingiva and alveolar mucosa

Labial flap: Containing lip mucosa

Buccal flap: Containing cheek mucosa

Sublingual flap: Containing sublingual mucosa

Palatal flap: Containing palatal mucosa

Pharyngeal flap: Containing pharyngeal mucosa

Tissue Thickness:

Partial-thickness (or split-thickness) flap: Consisting of a portion of the original tissue thickness

Full-thickness flap: Having the original tissue thickness

Blood Supply:

Random pattern flap: Randomly supplied by nonspecific arteries

Axial pattern flap: Supplied by a specific artery